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Organochlorines have also been linked to PD in human and laboratory studies.

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We completed a comprehensive review of human epidemiologic studies of pesticides, selected industrial compounds, and metals and their association with PD in Pub Med and Google Scholar until April 2016.

Most studies show that rotenone and paraquat are linked to increased PD risk and PD-like neuropathology.

Iron has been found to be elevated in PD brain tissue but the pathophysiological link is unclear.

PD due to manganese has not been demonstrated, though a parkinsonian syndrome associated with manganese is well-documented.

The agent is unknown, but several environmental exposures have been associated with PD.

Here, we summarize and examine the evidence for such environmental exposures.

We did not perform a comprehensive review of laboratory data and instead selected relevant laboratory studies to enrich our discussion.

We begin our discussion with MPTP, which is not a common environmental exposure but was the first recognized agent that led to an animal model of Parkinsonism.

Parkinson’s disease (PD) affects millions around the world.

The Braak hypothesis proposes that in PD a pathologic agent may penetrate the nervous system via the olfactory bulb, gut, or both and spreads throughout the nervous system.

It is theorized that there is a “dual-hit” caused by genetic predisposition and subsequent environmental factors interacting to create the cellular dysfunction that causes PD.

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